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Advanced Harmonic Transformer Calibration Solutions-Part 1

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1. What Is Harmonic Transformer


1.1 Introduction to Harmonic Transformers


Fundamental Wave

Definition: According to IEC standards, the fundamental wave is "the first component of the Fourier series of a periodic quantity." In the Chinese power system, it typically refers to a sinusoidal wave with a frequency of 50 Hz.


Harmonics

Definition: Harmonics are "components of the Fourier series of a periodic quantity with orders higher than 1," encompassing integer harmonics, interharmonics, and subharmonics. Practically, harmonics usually refer to integer harmonics with orders higher than 1. Interharmonics are non-integer multiples greater than 1, and subharmonics are multiples less than 1.


Table 1-1 Common Power Waveforms


Type Description Waveform

Fundamental Wave

A sinusoidal wave with f0 equal to 50 Hz or 60 Hz.

TUNKIA Advanced Harmonic Transformer Calibration Solutions-Part 1


Harmonics

fN = N * f0 (where N > 1 is a positive integer), for example:

2nd harmonic, f2 = 2 * f0 = 100 Hz,

3rd harmonic, f3 = 3 * f0 = 150 Hz,

4th harmonic, f4 = 4 * f0 = 200 Hz.…

Interharmonics

Frequency is a non-integer multiple of the fundamental frequency greater than 1. fn= n * f0 (n>1 is a non-positive integer)

TUNKIA Advanced Harmonic Transformer Calibration Solutions-Part 1


Subharmonic

The second harmonic frequency is a multiple of the fundamental frequency less than 1. fm= m * f0 (m<1)

Full Wave

The total power containing fundamental and harmonics is a composite waveform.


1.2 Harmonics and Power Metering


Harmonic Generation

TUNKIA Advanced Harmonic Transformer Calibration Solutions-Part 1

In an ideal power grid, voltage and current should be sinusoidal at the power frequency.

Nonlinear loads in power systems generate harmonics, significantly impacting the grid when injected.


The Harm of Harmonics

TUNKIA Advanced Harmonic Transformer Calibration Solutions-Part 1

Minor harmonics can cause metering deviations and data distortions, affecting trade settlements and energy management.

Harmonics increase the risk of grid resonance, causing higher losses, reduced efficiency, and potential overheating, which can lead to fires. They also distort low-voltage equipment supply, impacting performance and lifespan.

Anti-harmonic equipment, including harmonic transformers, is crucial for grid monitoring and requires regular maintenance.


1.3 Harmonic Transformer


Harmonic Voltage Transformers: Measure and transform high voltage.

Harmonic Current Transformers: Measure and transform high current.

Harmonic transformers are essential for extending the measurement range of electrical instruments and isolating high voltage and large current containing harmonics, converting them into manageable levels for measurement and control.


Table 1-2 Harmonic Voltage Transformer and Harmonic Current Transformer


Type Harmonic Voltage Transformer Harmonic Current Transformer

Diagram

TUNKIA Advanced Harmonic Transformer Calibration Solutions-Part 1

TUNKIA Advanced Harmonic Transformer Calibration Solutions-Part 1

Purpose

Transform and measure high voltage

Transform and measure high current

Rated Voltage or Current

6~110 kV >6 kV, 0~3 kA or above

Frequency Range

50 Hz~3 kHz

50 Hz~3 kHz

Class of Standard

Up to class 0.1

Up to class 0.1

Verification Procedures

JJG 1177-2021

JJG 1176-2021


Next article, we will introduce you the TUNKIA solution to harmonic transformer calibration. Stay tuned!

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